Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Colonialism In Nigeria Essay Example For Students

Colonialism In Nigeria Essay The earliest known documentation of Nigeria is that it was the sight of a group of organized states called Hausa. The earliest Nigerians were the Nok people. These Noks were skilled artisans, but they didnt last long. The Noks had disappeared by the second millennium. The Southwest region of Lake Chad, Africa was ruled by the Kanem-Bornu during the 8th century. By the 1300s, the empire of Kanem-Bornu was a flourishing center of Islamic culture, rivaling Mali in the west. As this African kingdom began to stagnate, the western states fell under the rule of Songhai and the empire fell in result. During the 15th century, Nigeria was a very prosperous country with great cultivation and trading. By the late 16th century, the Kanem-Bornu broke up and the Hausa states regained their independence. In the 19th century, the Fulani then took dominance in the lands of Hausa and the southern part of the country was divided at this time. In the west, Yoruba had their own states; the Edo ruled in Be nin in the south-central parts; and the Ibo had control in the east, in and north of the Niger delta. People such as Mungo Park, Richard Lemon Lander, and John Lander first explored the interior in 1830-31. Realizing the potential of the area, the Portuguese, the British, and others established slave-trading stations in the Niger delta. The British sent consuls to Calabar and Lagos, where traders were established, and they took full possession of Lagos. The British then established protectorates after the conclusion of several treaties with the native chiefs and in 1893, the name Niger Coast Protectorate was established. Then, in 1900, after expansion in the southwest, which brought about the addition of the kingdom of Benin, the name was changed to the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. In the same year, the British proclaimed the protectorate of Northern Nigeria as well. British didnt have full control over either of the two protectorates at the time of their establishments. However, France, Britain, and Germany had so-called spheres of influence and it was understood that Britain had control of Nigeria. British troops were engaged in conflicts with the people of Nigeria who were still involved in slave trade after it was prohibited by the British in 1807. In 1914, North and South Nigeria merged into the colony and protectorate of Nigeria with Sir Fredrick Lugard as the governor. However, for administrative purposes, the country was divided into the Colony of Lagos, Northern province, and Southern province. Lugard allowed the native chiefs and councils to rule over Nigeria while under the watch of the British government. During the time of World War II, the people of Nigeria demanded self-government and wrote multiple constitutions, none of which stuck. By succeeding constitutional changes, Nigeria was able to become a federation in 1954 and each region was given the option of claiming self-government. Self-government was first granted to the Eastern and Western regions in 1957 and then to the northern region in 1959. Nigeria was accepted as an independent state on October 1, 1960 by the UN and on October 7th by the Commonwealth of Nations. On February 11-12, 1961, the northern section voted to become part of Nigeria. At this time, Nigeria was divided into three separate states: the northern region, dominated by Hausa speakers; the Western Region, of the Yoruba; and the predominately Igbo Eastern Region. National conflicts were soon caused because of the national politics. There were constant treats of seceding from the federation by the politicians of each region. .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .postImageUrl , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:hover , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:visited , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:active { border:0!important; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:active , .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2 .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u98e6982ec628dea995e307170d5c0bf2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Bi-Lingual Education EssayThirteen years of military rule ended in 1979. A new constitution was written completely free of any British involvement. They modeled their government off of the United States balance-of-powers system. Nigeria is a federation of 19 states and Federal Capital Territory. The people of Nigeria are ruled by a president who is elected for a period of 4 years at a time. Also, a governor who is elected for four years at a time and who holds the executive power in the state rules each state. The current political parties are the Social Democratic Party and the National Republican Convention. In 1966, the dream of flourishing democracy was diminished when a series of massacres occurred, inter-country arguments came about, and a military coup started the first of a series of military governments. As a response to this take over, the Ibo seceded from the federation and declared the independent republic of Biafra. This secession began a civil war that lasted for almost 3 years. Nigeria won the war and the military government controlled both regions. The economy of Nigeria increased an incredible amount during the 1970s with the recovery of oil production. The country for the first time was pretty well off. As of currently, it appears that the government and economy are stable. The government as of now is a federal republic under control by the military. The currency ($ U.S. Equivalent) is 10.49 naira is equal to $1 and the inflation rate is 50%. Natural resources such as oil, minerals, natural gas, coal, and timber allow the country to earn $42.0 billion on exports. The GDP of Nigeria is US$143.5 billion and they have an annual growth of 3%. Overall, the country has come a long way since colonialism and has undergone many changes, and prosper. The full name of the country as of this point in time is the Federal republic of Nigeria. There is a large variety of people (e.g.- Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo) and many different languages spoken (e.g.- English, Hausa, Yoruba). The capital city is Abuja with a present population of 378,671. The overall population of the country is 108.5 million people. The religions, as well as the languages and people, are diverse. Some of the major religions are Muslim (50%) and Christian, mostly Roman Catholic (40%). Nigerias currents major trading partners are the USA, EU, and Japan. The countrys government is a Republic led by the president Olusegun Obasanjo.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

To Kill A Mockingbird Is this novel simply a pessimistic presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society Essay Example

To Kill A Mockingbird Is this novel simply a pessimistic presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society Paper In this essay I will be looking at the different types of prejudices that are used in the novel. These include prejudice against colour, sex, class, outcasts and outsiders. I will be looking at how these prejudices affect the characters in the novel and how their attitudes change. I will also be looking closely at the characters of Atticus Finch and Bob Ewell, who have completely different attitudes towards racism. I interpret the word prejudice as literally meaning pre-judge. When someone is prejudiced against someone then it means that they are judging him or her without knowing them and this is usually down to racism. There are many examples of prejudice in the novel and this gives the idea that Maycomb is a deeply flawed and discriminatory society. The main example of prejudice in the novel revolves around the trial of Tom Robinson, who is a black man that is being tried for a rape crime that he did not commit. The pre-judgment of Tom Robinson by a 12-strong Maycomb jury shows that the community is deeply racist. White people considered blacks to be upstart and the reason for this is that the book is set at the time of depression and whites were worried that, black men could take their jobs. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill A Mockingbird Is this novel simply a pessimistic presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill A Mockingbird Is this novel simply a pessimistic presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill A Mockingbird Is this novel simply a pessimistic presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This is one of the reasons that Bob Ewell accuses Tom Robinson of murder. Ewell is deeply racist and when he finds his daughter trying to seduce Tom he automatically accuses the black man. Although this prejudice against Tom Robinson is started by one the man most of the town have no trouble in sticking by the white man and this is why the trial is one of the main areas of racism in the book. This racism against blacks though is not the only area of discrimination in Maycomb society. There is also a strong discrimination against outsiders that starts at a very early age. An example of this is when scout goes to school for the first time and her teacher says, I am from North Alabama, from Winston County. At this point the class murmured apprehensively, should she prove to harbour her share of peculiarities indigenous to that region. By doing this, the class is pre-judging their teacher only a few minutes after meeting her for the first time. The children are showing that even at their early age they consider outsiders to be peculiar. The only reason that I can see for this is that this has been drilled into them from a young age and therefore gives us the idea that the town they live in is deeply flawed and discriminatory The character of Bob Ewell can be seen as the epitome of everything that is wrong with the society of Maycomb. He is described as a little bantam cock that crowed like a rooster on a dung hill. This shows what the people of the town think about him and also how his racist opinion would usually count for nothing. Mr. Ewell is also a redneck, which is made clear when the author says, the back of his neck reddened at the sound of his name. This tells us that Ewell is a racist piece of white trash, like most other rednecks. The character of Bob Ewell rubs off on the rest of his family, whom he treats, with no degree of respect or care. The first example of this comes about when his son, Burris Ewell is at school. The teacher tries to repremand Burris but he says, you ain`t sending me home missus. I was just on the verge of leaving- I done my time for this year. This shows how Bob has not laid down any rules for his children and he doesnt set any rules for his children or care what the get up to. It also gives across the idea that the Ewell family is very dysfunctional and this is one of the many differences between the Ewells and the Fiches. An example of how Ewell has no respect for his family is the way that he drags his daughter Mayella through a rape trial for some personal attention. Ewell describes the rape as rutting and this is a word that is only usually used to describe sex between animals. By using this sort of language Ewell is portraying himself and his family as wild animals and when a wild dog appears later in the novel this can be seen as a portrayal of Ewell. Atticuss children are very different from Ewells but they, like many of the other children in the novel are also prejudiced. Scout is victimized by her brother Jem for not being girlish enough. He says, I declare to the lord you are getting more like a girl everyday! This upsets Scout because she seems to want to be a boy because men obviously have a higher status in the town. Although Scout is being victimized here she shows signs of being racist herself. When she and Jem are building a snowman that is mostly made of mud she exclaims, I aint ever heard of a nigger snowman. By using the word nigger Scout is showing that from a very young age she is using the language that she has obviously picked up from the people around her and by doing this she is giving the idea that the whole town is discriminatory in one way or another. It is clear that it is not only the white people of Maycomb that are prejudiced against anything that dont conform to their ideals, it is the black community as well. Both communities shun Mr. Dolphus Raymond because he is involved in a mixed marriage that goes against both white and black laurels. Jem explains to scout that mixed children belong nowhere and this shows how everyone in Maycomb is strongly opposed to anything that is not traditional or that doesnt occur on a wide-scale. The language that Harper Lee uses in the book is often racist and if it were used today then most people would take offense. She uses words like Nigger and Negro to show that the town is deeply racist because this language is used daily. I think that it is acceptable for Lee to use this type of language in the novel simply because it was what the language was like at the time that the novel is set and it shows what Maycomb is like. While Lee uses racist language to show racism in the novel she also uses empathy on a number of occasions to show peoples situations from other peoples points of view. An example of this is when Jem and Scout are made to spend time with Mrs. Dubose. Atticus says,I wanted you to see something about her-I wanted you to see what real courage is. With the use of empathy Lee shows the reader what Mrs. Dubose is really like. By making his children spend time with Mrs. Dubose Atticus is showing them not to judge a book by its cover. This is one of the many morals that Atticus tries to pass down to his kids throughout the novel. Another moral that he tries to pass down is the one that you have to fight for what is right. When Scout asks Atticus why he is taking on the Tom Robinson rape case he explains that if he didnt then he could not hold my head up in town. By setting this good example to his children Atticus is showing what type of person he is and this person is very different to Bob Ewell. Atticus is a respectable member of Maycombs society who, unlike Ewell is not racist and has a respectable job. Atticus is also well educated and shows us the importance of empathy. He says that you dont know a person Until you climb into its skin and walk around in it. By having the character of Atticus Lee shows us that not all of Maycomb are discriminatory and that it is only parts of the society that have something wrong with them and this can be said about all of society. Although the main plot of the novel is the trial of Tom Robinson the book also contains an interlacing sub-plot that centers on the mysterious character of Boo Radley. Boo is a man that does not conform to what is considered a normal way of life and he is therefore portrayed to the children of Maycomb as a bogeyman. This becomes apparent when Dill has the idea to make Boo Radley come out. This shows how the children wanted to torment him just because he doesnt come outside and conform to everyone elses way of life. This is a form of discrimination because they are tormenting him just because he is different and shows that even though Atticus tries to install good morals into his children they still go of and do things like this. Along with Tom Robinson, Boo Radley can be seen as the Mockingbird of novel. Atticus says that Mockingbirds dont do one thing but make music for us to enjoy and therefore its a sin to kill a Mockingbird. This can be related to both Boo and Tom because the both do nothing wrong and are both tormented and discriminated against. I think that Lee purposely had two Mockingbirds in the novel, to show that it is all of Maycombs society that is prejudiced. The children torment Boo and the adults persecute Tom. This shows that maycombs society is deeply flawed and discriminatory. So in conclusion, I would say that on the outside the novel is a presentation of a deeply flawed and discriminatory society. If you look deeper then you can see that not all of the society carries this prejudice and I think that the different fate of the two Mockingbirds is very significant. Boo shows us that you should not judge a book by its cover while the death of Tom Robinson shows how cruel humans can be to people who are effectively exactly the same as themselves.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

the code of honor essays

the code of honor essays Both Othello and The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn deal with the issue of race, especially the notion of race as a  ¡Ã‚ °social construct ¡. Othello is  ¡Ã‚ °being taken by the insolent foe and sold to slavery ¡ (Shakespeare 1.3.136-137); Jim is a runaway nigger. Both of them have ever been a slaver respectively, but their stories are totally different: one becomes a general; one becomes a free man at the end. What does make this difference, even though they are ever at the same level? By close reading, we know Shakespeare and Twain suggest that honor is more to people than just their races when evaluating the social value. People who have honor are respected from other people and remain high in their society. What should be consider as honorable? Service to the country, knowledgeable, or even money, and so on. Othello is a Moor, and he is ever sold to slavery. What does make him to be a noble general? It is the services to the state:  ¡Ã‚ °My services which I have done the Signiory shall out-tongue his complaints ¡ (Shakespeare 1.2.18-19). Even the Duke will not look down on Othello, who is an Arab, like the Turks (the enemy of Venice). He believes  ¡Ã‚ °Othello, the fortitude of the place is best known to you ¡ (Shakespeare 1.3.219-220) and employs him  ¡Ã‚ °against the general enemy Ottoman ¡ (Shakespeare 1.3.47-48). Therefore, race is not an obstacle to Othello ¡Ã‚ ¯s military career. Twain also suggests race is not the only issue to define social construct. For example,  ¡Ã‚ °There was a free nigger there,  ¡Ã‚ ­ they said he was a p ¡Ã‚ ¯fessor in a college, and could talk all kinds of language, and knowed everything  ¡Ã‚ ­ they said he could vote ¡ (Twain 26; ch.6). This professor is the same race with Jim, but why he even has the right to vote? It is not only because he lives in the North of American, but also because he is knowledgeable. No every nigger in the North has the honor of voting, actua...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

How to Style Numbers

How to Style Numbers How to Style Numbers How to Style Numbers By Mark Nichol When you write a number that will appear in print or online, do you use figures, or spell it out? If you want to follow an authoritative source to produce professional-looking content, the answer is both more complicated and simpler than you think (we already covered part of this topic with the article 10 Rules for Writing Numbers and Numerals). The bible of the mainstream book-publishing industry, The Chicago Manual of Style, devotes 18 pages to the topic, while The AP Stylebook, the authority of record for newspapers, is appropriately more concise. (Various magazines generally use one style or the other, but Web sites tend toward AP style.) Other style manuals abound, but unless you’re writing for scholarly journals, you can count, so to speak, on Chicago or AP. The more formal the writing, the more likely you’ll follow Chicago style, which originally evolved from guidelines developed for the University of Chicago Press but has since been adopted by most book publishers as the authority for grammar, usage, punctuation, and, yes, numbers. The basic Chicago rule is to spell out numbers from one to one hundred but use numerals for 101 and up. But if you refer to two amounts in the same category, default to numerals. (â€Å"I found 137 mistakes, compared with only 89 last time.†) Major exceptions to the basic rule include a number as the first word in a sentence, larger round numbers (â€Å"five hundred†) and orders of magnitude (â€Å"millions,† â€Å"billions,† etc.). The point is to maintain consistency as much as possible. Technical, statistically dense text, meanwhile, is better served by numerals, so in that case use digits for physical dimensions, degrees (both of temperature and angle), scores and percentages, money, time, and other references to quantity. Newspaper style and less formal writing (and much of online content) hews closer to AP style, which derived from the rules for Associated Press newspaper articles: Spell out numbers only to ten, use numbers for 11 and up, and don’t be concerned about matching style when you refer to quantities on both sides of the tipping point. (â€Å"In a classroom poll conducted recently, only seven of 29 students agreed with that statement.†) And what about those pesky hyphens? Don’t hyphenate a physical dimension to the unit name unless those two terms modify a noun (â€Å"10 feet,† but â€Å"10-foot pole†). Hyphenate double-digit numbers by themselves and within larger numbers if they aren’t multiples of ten (â€Å"sixty-four,† â€Å"one hundred twenty-eight†), but don’t hyphenate all the elements of a large number like a chain. Simple and mixed fractions should be styled, depending on your preferred policy, either like â€Å"1/2† and â€Å"1 3/4,† or like â€Å"one-half† or â€Å"one and three-fourths.† Don’t bother setting case fractions (in which the numbers are reduced in size and placed on either side of a diagonal line); if you’re writing for a publication, the fraction will be formatted during the production stage according to its style. To establish a style for your Web site or blog, keep in mind that gurus of online content advise using numerals, which are easier to scan (and most site visitors scan before they read, if they read at all), but note that the AP rule about using numerals for numbers you can count on your fingers still applies: â€Å"1 day, I’ll see with my own 2 eyes that you can beat 3 people in a row in 4-square† is going a bit far. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:When to Capitalize Animal and Plant Names5 Lessons for Mixing Past and Present TenseWords That Begin with Q

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The European Union is being successful in spite of itself and its Essay

The European Union is being successful in spite of itself and its skeptics - Essay Example Napoleon and Hitler had no better success than the Roman Empire and the staggering costs of the last two world wars was motive enough to inspire another more democratic solution. The fact that nations continue to apply for acceptance into the European Union (EU) and the fact that only one EU member has ever renounced its EU citizenship speaks for the effectiveness in unifying diverse and autonomous nations. This combined with the lack of war on the European continent despite major differences and the fall of the Soviet Union, demonstrates the pacifying influence of the EU. While the world wide press continues to coin gleefully cynical terms like Euro-Skeptics, Europhobiles, Euro-pessimists and Euro-cynics, the unification of Europe is an idea whose time has come. This union is maintaining peace. Regardless of all of the sovereignty issues, problems with democracies and economies...its fundamental reason for conception has been more or less maintained by standing as a pillar uniting the Continent of Europe rather than allowing it to dissolve into war. One of the ways that this peace has been maintained is through the creation and acceptance of European wide rules of law and economic criterium. The source of some criticism comes from younger ages groups disenchanted with unemployment issues. Seeking easy answers to their plight they have blamed the European Union on their situation. One potential pitfall to the unification of Europe is changing demographics of the continent as those with vivid memories of war pass on business and political leadership to a generation that doesn't remember what a real air raid drill was all about. The memory and fear of world war had a lot to do with the creation of the EU. New treaties and agreements will have to go beyond peaceful co-existence and address employment and social issues more directly than the original organizing policies have done if long term stability is to be maintained. With post World War II reconstruction proceeding to return Europe to a functioning collection of individual nations, the idea of a unified Europe rose to the top of the continental discussion as it had after World War I. "A number of European leaders in the late 1940s became convinced that the only way to establish a lasting peace was to unite the two chief belligerent nations - France and Germany - both economically and politically"(U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 2006). The Treaty of Amsterdam on the European Union (EU) which came into force on 1 May 1999 states that the EU: must be maintained and developed as an area of freedom, security and justice; (an area) in which the free movement of persons is assured; in conjunction with appropriate measures with respect to external border controls, asylum, immigration and the prevention and combating of crime. (Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security of the European Commission, 2006) The European Commission has gained the ability to resolve international disputes peaceful because member nations have given up some of their autonomy for the greater benefits afforded its members in politics, economics as well as social structure. The EU -15 as they were referred to seem to have come to the Union for economic reasons according to most

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Feast of Achelous Essay

Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Feast of Achelous - Essay Example The paper "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Feast of Achelous" seeks to critique Raphael’s â€Å"Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints† and Peter Paul Rubens and Jan Bruenghel the Elder "Feast of Achelous". Whereas many forms of religious art during such a time were lavishly decorative while at the same time exhibiting a corresponding high level of artistic complexity, this particular piece of Raphael exhibits historical nuances that he untrained eye would not necessarily be able to pick up upon. For instance, whereas almost all of the religious iconography and paintings of the time and long before had pictured Christ as a naked baby, this particular piece was one of the first artistic expressions of Christ in a clothed state while still a baby. Many historians have attributed this to the fact that the nuns of the convent which commissioned Raphael to create the artwork had played a strong role in seeking to censor his style and demanded that a modest repre sentation of the male form be rendered. Moreover, the painting itself allows for some foreshadowing of the ways that Raphael’s career would develop. One need only consider the use and choice of colors that Raphael engages with, representation of the clean lines, and the minimalism and life figure portrayal of both the Madonna as well as Christ to seek to draw a level of inference onto the means by which his career would progress and mirror many of these artistic ideals. Likewise, the second painting that this brief analysis.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

American Sign Language Essay Example for Free

American Sign Language Essay For years psychologists have debated and tried to find out how our individual behaviour is gained- are we born with it or do we gain it through experience? Many psychologists have tried to find ways in which they can measure if our behaviour is learnt or inherited but these psychologists have encountered problems while doing so.  One problem that psychologists have when investigating whether behaviour is learned or inherited is actually finding a task that can be given to all of the different participants. Psychologists carrying out an experiment to find out about behaviour usually have participants which are different in some way, for example different sexes, different cultures, different levels of intelligence. Deregowski conducted a cross cultural experiment to see if people from different cultures perceive pictures the same. He found that the African children spent a lot of time looking at the pen and paper as they had never before seen or used them in their life. The same task has to be given to all of the participants as the same dependant variable is being measured and this is a big problem as it decreases the reliability of the results. Another problem is that it is very difficult to separate genetics and our experience as we begin learning from the moment we are born. This makes it hard to find a task that can measure just the intelligence we are born with because as long as we are on this planet, we are constantly learning new things that make us more intelligent. Gould carried out an experiment to measure peoples native intellectual ability (the intelligence we are a born with which is unaffected by culture and educational opportunities). The experiment clearly didnt measure native intellectual ability, as you needed to know about American culture to answer the questions. Even thought the experiment was biased and favoured Americans, it is still a good example of how difficult it is to measure our native intellectual ability because Goulds aim for the experiment was to measure this but this obviously proved to be very difficult. Other psychologists have tried to measure the intellectual ability we are born with but many have began to question whether we can ever make a task that measures our native intellectual ability. The only way we come very close to separating our learned and inherited ability is if we separate two identical twins at birth and put them into different environments. We could put one into an environment where a very minimal amount of behaviour is learnt from experience. For example we could put the twin into an empty room with no contact with the outside world and hardly any human contact (somewhat like a prison). The other twin can lead a normal life by going to school, interacting with other people etc. We can then observe the two twins in later life and if their behaviour is very similar or the same, it proves that behaviour is inherited. If the twin who lived in the outside world is more developed that the twin who was shut away from the world, it would prove that our behaviour is gained through experience. This is the only ideal way to investigate whether behaviour is learned or inherited but is this method ethical? Gardner Gardner wanted to see whether a chimpanzee could communicate in American Sign Language and the only way they could investigate their aim was to treat a chimpanzee like a human and take it out of its natural habitat. They proved that a chimpanzee could communicate in ASL but the experiment was criticised by many people who thought it was unethical.